By I. Flint. Western Michigan University. 2018.
These tagonism than D2 antagonism as well as 5-HT1A partial authors also suggested that 1 antagonism may explain the agonism generic mircette 15 mcg otc. This may be part of the mixture that accounts for atypical properties of sertindole mircette 15mcg with mastercard, which has been reported its particular advantages over other atypical antipsychotic to achieve as high an occupancy of D2 receptors as typical drugs. All of the atypical agents men- 5-HT1A antagonist, attenuated the effect of MK-801, an tioned above are also potent 2 antagonists, with the excep- NMDA antagonist on locomotor activity, prepulse inhibi- tion of zotepine and sertindole (22). They cite other evidence that 5-HT1A an- of clozapine and iloperidone. However, McAllister and Rey tagonists may improve learning and memory in animal (139) were unable to reverse the effects of loxapine or halo- Chapter 58: Mechanism of Action of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs 827 peridol on catalepsy with 2 antagonists and showed that the role of 5-HT2A receptors and suggestive evidence of the the effect of clozapine to reverse loxapine-induced increase roles of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, and 1 receptors in various in catalepsy was due to its anticholinergic rather than its actions of clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, zi- adrenoceptor blocking properties. Clozapine produces mas- prasidone, iloperidone, sertindole, and related atypical anti- sive increases in plasma norepinephrine, which may indicate psychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotic drugs that are po- that it can cause effective stimulation of -adrenoceptors tent 5-HT2A antagonists relative to their D2 receptor receptors in brain (140). The addition of idazozan, an 2 blocking property appear to potentiate 5-HT1A-mediated antagonist, to fluphenazine, a typical neuroleptic, was re- effects on dopaminergic neurons in the mesocortical, meso- ported by Littman et al. The effects in the mesocor- to clozapine in a small group of neuroleptic-resistant pa- tical regions appear to be mediated by modulation of gluta- tients with schizophrenia. These results need to be repli- mate release from pyramidal neurons. Idazoxan has also been shown to improve attentional been found to preferentially increase DA efflux in the mPFC and executive dysfunction in patients with dementia of the compared to limbic and striatal regions. They also increase frontal type (142), suggesting that some of the cognitive acetylcholine release in the PFC. Effects on 5-HT2C, enhancing effects of the atypical antipsychotic drugs might 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors may also be be related to their blocking properties. Another antag- relevant to some of their actions, e. Other models of atypicality appear performance in aged rats (143). Polymorphisms of the to be effective, including partial DA agonists such as aripi- 1 and receptors have been reported not to predict response prazole. Selective D2/D3 antagonists such as amisulpride 2 to clozapine (144). At this time, multirecep- In this regard, it is of interest that idazoxan has been tor agents appear to be more promising as antipsychotic shown to preferentially increase DA efflux in the rat mPFC agents for the majority of psychiatric patients because of by an action at the terminal area (145). This effect appears important interactions between neural circuits that employ multiple neurotransmitters. This effect was closely coupled to the increase in DA efflux. Increased levels of This work is supported in part by grants from Mr. Donald norepinephrine might also be related to the cognitive and Test, Mrs. The assistance antidepressant effects of the atypical antipsychotic drugs of Ms. Antipsychotic drugs in schizo- phrenia: current issues. Typical neuroleptic drugs such as haloperidol have been 2. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophre- reliably shown to produce their antipsychotic action by nia: a review. Effect of chlorpromazine or haloperi- dol on formation of 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine ing that increased dopaminergic activity in these terminal in mouse brain. Dopamine receptor binding pre- to the etiology of schizophrenia.
Ablative modalities usually are efective purchase mircette 15 mcg with mastercard, but careful Special Considerations follow-up is essential for patient management order 15 mcg mircette. Pregnancy Imiquimod, sinecatechins, podophyllin, and podoflox Cervical Cancer Screening for should not be used during pregnancy. Genital warts can prolif- Women Who Attend STD Clinics or erate and become friable during pregnancy. Although removal Have a History of STDs of warts during pregnancy can be considered, resolution might be incomplete or poor until pregnancy is complete. Rarely, Women attending STD clinics for the treatment of geni- HPV types 6 and 11 can cause respiratory papillomatosis tal infection with high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus in infants and children, although the route of transmission (HR-HPV) might be at increased risk for cervical cancer; (i. Whether cesarean section prevents respiratory precancerous lesions. One study demonstrated an HR-HPV papillomatosis in infants and children also is unclear (412); prevalence of 27% among women receiving treatment in an therefore, cesarean delivery should not be performed solely STD clinic setting; prevalence was highest among persons aged to prevent transmission of HPV infection to the newborn. In an evalua- Cesarean delivery is indicated for women with genital warts tion of women attending STD clinics, over half of women were if the pelvic outlet is obstructed or if vaginal delivery would at increased risk for cervical cancer as a result of HPV infection, result in excessive bleeding. Pregnant women with genital cervical disease, or history of cervical disease compared with warts should be counseled concerning the low risk for warts women without these characteristics (419). In a 2004 survey, 49% of all STD clinics in the United States reported HIV Infection providing cervical screening services, and 20% reported use Persons who are HIV-infected are more likely to develop of HPV DNA testing (419). No data suggest that treat- ommendation is based on the low incidence of cervical cancer ment modalities for external genital warts should be diferent for and limited utility of screening in younger women (98). However, persons who are immunosup- recommends that women start cervical screening with Pap tests pressed because of HIV or other reasons might have larger or after 3 years of initiating sexual activity but by no later than age more numerous warts, might not respond as well as immuno- 21 years (98). Squamous through 65 years according to USPSTF (http://www. Because of the increased incidence of anal cancer in HIV- infected MSM, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia by Screening Recommendations cytology can be considered (417). However, evidence is limited STD clinics that provide routine cervical screening services concerning the natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasias, should follow the available guidelines. However, to ensure the reliability of screening methods, the safety and response to the provision of adequate care, follow-up and referral sources treatments, and the programmatic considerations that would must be in place. Cervical screening should be performed support this screening approach. Te Digene HC2 HPV lesions (LSIL), and high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). DNA test (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, Maryland) detects any of 13 Te ASC category is subdivided into atypical squamous cells of high-risk or fve low-risk HPV types, although use of this test undetermined signifcance (ASC-US) and atypical squamous is not indicated in the STD clinic setting (i. During appointments in which a pelvic examination for High-risk HPV DNA tests are recommended for the triage STD screening is performed, the health-care provider should of women aged ≥21 years who have ASC-US cytology results. Health-care providers should be aware that many clinic visit. When available, a copy of the Pap test result should women frequently equate having a pelvic examination with be provided. Women with abnormal screening or diagnostic having a Pap test; they erroneously believe that a sample for tests should be referred to clinic settings that employ providers Pap testing was taken, when in reality, only a pelvic examina- who are experienced in managing these cases (see Follow-Up). Because self-reports of Pap tests often are Cervical screening programs should screen women who have not accurate, STD clinics should have a protocol for conduct- received HPV vaccination in the same manner as unvaccinated ing cervical cancer screening and obtaining a Pap test during women. At that time, routine testing with either HPV Tests a Pap test or a Pap and HR-HPV testing can resume (428). HPV tests are available for clinical use and are recom- If the results of the Pap test are abnormal, follow-up care mended for the triage of women aged ≥21 years who have should be provided according to the ASCCP 2006 Consensus abnormal Pap test results (ASC-US). Additionally, these tests Guidelines for Management of Abnormal Cervical Cytology (429) can be used in conjunction with a Pap test (adjunct testing) for (information regarding management and follow-up care is cervical cancer screening of women aged ≥30 years. If resources in STD clinics should not be used for women aged <20 years for screening do not allow for follow-up of women with abnormal results, or management of abnormal Pap tests or for STD screening.
Tradi- assumption that the borders of individual structures can be tional brain atlases identify brain regions only by pointing specified accurately in any brain purchase mircette 15 mcg amex. In the past buy mircette 15 mcg mastercard, basic questions to the middle of the region or surface feature, leaving the of functional neuroanatomy were difficult to address in a interfaces between regions unspecified. We have learned much debate the exact boundary of even relatively simple struc- from anecdotal reporting of individual patients with various tures such as the thalamus or caudate nucleus. With this forms of brain lesion or from direct cortical stimulation context, new initiatives at various laboratories are attempt- during brain surgery, but the generalization of individual ing to standardize and codify the partitioning of the human observation to the wider population has been confounded brain into named regions, not without controversy. Tradi- by the normal variation in brain structure itself. There is tional neuroanatomists debate among themselves about then a fundamental interest in understanding the nature of what parcellation scheme and nomenclature to use. Com- anatomic variability in the population, both for its relation- puter scientists argue among themselves about whether to ship to functional variability and for the potential of using use hierarchical, relational, object-oriented, or some other structural abnormality as a measure of development, normal form of database structure to organize the brain parcellation. Neurobiologists or physicians are not used sulci become more open and the ventricles become enlarged. Some sophisticated analytic approaches for quantifying ana- tomic variability assume that a particular landmark can be Alan C. Evans: Department of Neurology, McGill University, Montreal perfectly identified in any brain when the reality is that Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The atlas template is matched sets in 3D is a labor-intensive effort that is not likely to be to the new MRI volume through a variety of nonlinear de- widely adopted. Fully automated techniques that produce formation techniques, the most successful of which use accurate neuroanatomic segmentation in large numbers of image similarity criteria to deform one image into another. MRI data sets are essential if questions of normal cross- Once delineated in their native space it is possible to sectional variability, normal longitudinal development, and map the regional labels into stereotaxic space in much the detection of abnormality in single subjects or in groups are same way as tissue class maps and to conduct voxel mor- to be answered definitively. Many groups are now engaged phometry among groups using the random field statistical in the field of MRI-based quantitative neuroanatomy, and analysis (3,4,6,12,18,18,21,26,32,34,36,39–41,50,68). A representative sampling of activity by other tion is generally quite successful at labeling relatively well- groups in the field, categorized into the four forms of seg- defined 3D brain regions, such as the thalamus, but is mentation discussed in the subsequent Methods section, typically less successful in identifying cortical gyri. In- include the following: deed, the cortex as such is sufficiently important to merit special analytic treatment. In normal brain, the tissue classes are typically partial effects, some groups have targeted the internal gray matter, white matter, and CSF, although there is cortical margin at the interface between gray and white no reason in principle to restrict to these three tissue matter. Obtaining a measure of the two surfaces simul- types. In these approaches, one or more co-registered taneously allows for a measure of cortical thickness at MRI images of the same neuroanatomy, obtained using each location over the cortical surface. At each voxel the MRI intensity surface as a means of studying functional neuroanatomy for each of the N input images provides an N-dimensional on a two-dimensional (2D) plane. In practice, many confounding cortical folding in three dimensions. Many different multivariate statistical of area, direction, distance etc. Recent interest has cen- 3D data sets from different individuals. All of the ma- tered upon extracting not just the surface trace of the chinery of random field statistical analysis developed for sulcus as a line but rather the depth of the sulcus as a functional imaging then becomes available for structural ribbon. The latter approach provides more information analysis (1,5,30,31,35,54,56,57,81–83). Some form of prior information techniques, hardware, and algorithms to neuroscience at all on neuroanatomic boundaries is needed, usually in the spatial scales. We are involved in one of these applications form of a computerized brain atlas, to assist in 3D brain operating at the gross morphology level. Regions can be identified by vector Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) (52), seeks to cre- boundaries or by labeling of all internal voxels. The atlas ate a so-called probabilistic human brain atlas (see below). The pipeline concept has also been implemented for clinical trial analysis of MRI data from multiple sites.
As a result cheap 15 mcg mircette with mastercard, real-world effects can be Data Sources difficult to extrapolate from ordinary clinical trials cheap 15mcg mircette fast delivery. This Data for pharmaceutical outcomes studies can come from issue is discussed further below. Many pharmaceutical companies routinely differentiate the SSRIs and TCAs, except for their side- include pharmaceutical outcome (other than just clinical) effect profiles. However, SSRIs may have some advantage measurements in their development trials. In addition, post- over TCAs in the primary care practice setting (6,28,29). Each of these sources of data ceutical outcomes of interest for a given product are expen- and type of experimentation affect the degree of evidence sive, and data collection of all relevant information is diffi- obtained. Therefore, many pharmaceutical outcome studies mental health care requires careful consideration of the contribute to the body of knowledge by evaluating compo- source and strength of the evidence presented. Additionally, many pharmaco- economic analyses are based on models. These models typi- cally use published literature, expert opinion, or data from HUMANISTIC MEASURES administrative or encounter databases to get information on probabilities and costs. Humanistic measures assess how disease or treatment affects The impact of this component approach to building an patients. Humanistic measures are most important from the understanding of pharmaceutical outcomes is that data perspective of the patient. A primary goal for treatment of come from many sources ranging from experimental and any disease should be for patients to function normally, nonexperimental research designs to expert opinion and have an acceptable quality of life, and be satisfied with their models based on data from multiple and frequently diverse treatment. This is especially true for mental health disorders sources. Therefore, when reviewing pharmaceutical out- where impacts on both physical and social functioning may comes research, it is critical to understand the potential be significant. In many cases, patients and their friends and impact of the source of information on the results. Until A frequent source of outcomes data in mental health recently, humanistic measures have taken a back seat to research is randomized clinical trials conducted by the phar- traditional clinical measures and to some extent economic maceutical industry. This is in part due to greater variability from controlled and typically contain (as expected) mostly clinical patient self-reported measures compared to standard clinical information. In mental health, however, patient self-re- measures (34). The development of valid and reliable instru- ported items (i. There are also many studies that rely on chart review mon conceptualization of humanistic outcomes used in the and quasi-experimentation to document differences in re- evaluation of pharmaceuticals is health-related quality of source use for patients using various pharmaceutical agents. Examples include recent comparisons of tricyclic antide- Health-related quality of life encompasses factors such pressants and SSRIs, and atypical versus conventional anti- as functional status, physiologic status, social and emotional psychotic agents. Many of these studies were retrospective well-being, and life satisfaction (35). Health-related quality and were conducted through chart reviews or administrative of life information allows health care providers and payers data using quasi-experimental techniques. Finally, eco- to make decisions based not only on clinical effectiveness, nomic models have been built using published data or expert or costs but also on effects that are important to patients. Measurement of health-related quality of life may be espe- Historically, randomized controlled trials have been the cially important in chronic diseases for which we have no 'gold standard' (5). There are many humanistic measures available for as- and safety of a drug to be established. Unfortunately, some sessing mental health disorders. Generic and disease-specific of the strengths of such studies can also be a source of less instruments are available for a variety of disorders. This is a result of the sion of every instrument is not feasible; however, a few ex- artificial treatment environment purposefully created in effi- amples are provided. One of the most widely used generic health- 532 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress related quality of life instruments is the Medical Outcomes depression when comparing treatment groups (46). The MOS SF-36 cap- studies have evaluated health-related quality of life in the tures eight dimensions of health-related quality of life: phys- treatment of depression and utilized similar generic rating ical functioning, role limitations due to physical function- scales (47). However, there is a lack of understanding health (36).
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